Electrical Safety Work Practices

1. General Requirements

a) Purpose.  The purpose of this program is to establish safe work practices and procedures for employees exposed to electrical hazards in the workplace.

b) Scope.  This program applies to all employees, contractors, subcontractors and personnel who may be exposed to electrical hazards.

c) Responsibilities. 

i. ESCO Group Safety Director.  The ESCO Group Safety Director will have overall responsibility for communication and compliance with the electrical safety program.  Including the following duties: 

1. Budget for program-related expenses such as PPE, safety equipment, training, and electrical system documentation.

2. Ensure the Electrical System Requirements set forth in the program are implemented and maintained.  

3. Determine employees who require additional training due to risk inherent in their job duties.

4. Implement corrective action when necessary.

5. Provide the PPE required by the safety program.

6. Maintain, test, and recertify PPE as needed.

7. Enforce adherence to the electrical safety program for contractors, vendors, and suppliers not under the control of the facility engineering or maintenance departments.

8. Work with the customer and ESCO supervision to investigate any electrical incidents.  Incidents include events or occurrences that have, or could have resulted in a fatality, injury, or damage to health. 

ii. ESCO Group Employees.   

1. Before proceeding with any type of electrical work, all employees shall assure themselves that they can perform the work without injury. If they are assigned work they are not qualified to perform, they shall call this to their supervisor’s attention. 

2. Use and select proper personal protective equipment, tools, and safe work practices required by the electrical safety program.

3. Inform supervisor or management of any unsafe work conditions or practices.

4. Attend electrical safety training as required

d) References.

i. 29 CFR OSHA 1926.416 Subpart K –Electrical  Safety Related Work Practices

ii. 29 CFR OSHA 1910.331 - .335, Subpart S – Electrical Safety Related Work Practices

iii. NFPA 70E –  Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace

2. Electrical Safety Principles

a) Hazard elimination through de-energization shall be the first priority method of protecting employees from electrical hazards.  Whenever possible, electrical equipment must be placed in an electrically safe work condition before work is started.  

b) If de-energization is not feasible or creates a greater hazard, electrical safe work practices, procedures and personal protective equipment must be used to protect employees.  

c) All employees will be trained and familiar with any electrical safe work practice and procedure necessary for their safety.

d) Newly installed or modified electrical equipment and systems will be inspected to comply with applicable installation codes and standards prior to being placed into service. 

e) The electrical system will be maintained and upgraded to reduce probability of electrical failures due to equipment malfunctions.

f) Electrical hazards will be identified and controls will be implemented to reduce employee risk.

3. Electrical System Requirements

a) General Maintenance Requirements.  All electrical equipment will be maintained in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions or industry consensus standards.  Appropriate maintenance, testing, and inspection records will be documented.

b) Single-Line Diagrams.  Single line diagrams for the electrical system shall be maintained in a legible condition and kept current.

c) Short Circuit/Coordination Study.  Short circuit/coordination studies should be performed to ensure appropriate safety systems are in place for the electrical systems.

d) Arc Flash Risk Assessment.  An arc flash risk assessment will be performed on the electrical system to determine if arc flash hazards exist.  The arc flash risk assessment will contain the appropriate safe work practices, the arc flash boundary and PPE requirements.

Two methods are allowed for the Arc Flash Risk Assessment.  Either, but not both are allowed on the same piece of equipment: 

i. Incident Energy Analysis Method.  Incident energy exposures will be calculated in cal/cm2 and shall be based on the working distance of the employees’ face and chest areas.  Recognizing that incident energy increases as the distance from the arc flash decreases, additional PPE shall be used for any parts of the body that are closer than the working distance at which the incident energy was calculated.

The incident energy analysis shall take into consideration the characteristics of the overcurrent protective device and its fault clearing time, and its condition of maintenance.  The incident energy analysis shall be updated when changes occur in the electrical distribution system that could affect the results of the analysis.  The incident energy analysis shall also be reviewed for accuracy at intervals not to exceed 5 years.

TABLE 1 shall be permitted for use with the incident energy analysis method of selecting PPE.



ii. Arc Flash PPE Categories Method (Estimate of the Likelihood of Occurrence of an Arc Flash Incident).  When an incident energy analysis has not been completed TABLE 2 (next page), TABLE 6 (page 26), and TABLE 7 on page 28 may be used to determine the Arc Flash PPE Category and the arc flash boundary.  Both the short circuit current and the clearing time must be known and fall within the parameters set forth in TABLE 2.




e) Equipment Labeling.  Electrical equipment which are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing or maintenance while energized, shall be field marked with a label containing all the following information:  

i. Nominal System Voltage

ii. Arc flash boundary

iii. Arc Flash Risk Assessment incident energy or the arc flash PPE Category, but not both

iv. Site specific level of PPE, when more stringent than the Arc Flash Risk Assessment  

Examples of equipment which require labels include:  switchboards, panelboards, industrial control panels, meter socket enclosures and motor control centers.  

R&D labs which require employees to interact with energized circuits in order to test panels, variable frequency drives and other control devices shall be equipped with power supplies that are properly labeled with the label elements listed above.

The method and data used to calculate label information shall be documented.  The ESCO Group Senior   Electrical Engineer will update labels when changes to electrical system render the label inaccurate.  A sample label can be found in TABLE 11 on page 31.  

f) Changes to the Electrical Systems.  The ESCO Group Senior Electrical Engineer shall be notified of any changes made to the electrical system.  The single line diagram, short circuit/coordination study and arc flash risk assessment shall be updated as needed to reflect major modifications or renovations to the electrical distribution system. 

g) Temporary Power Systems.  Temporary electrical panels, transformers and power supply hubs shall be installed and labeled according to the ESCO Group Temporary Power Inspection Log, found on page 38 of this program.  Refer to Risk Assessment to ensure proper labeling by following TABLE 6 on page 26 of this program.

4. Training Requirements

The training requirements contained in this electrical safety program shall apply to all employees exposed to an electrical hazard when the risk associated with that hazard is not reduced to a safe level as required by the National Electrical Code installation requirements.  Such employees will be trained to identify and understand the relationship between electrical hazards and possible injury.  

Documentation.  All electrical safety training and emergency response training shall be documented with employee’s name, date of training, trainer’s name, maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment and then archived in the safety training archives.

Type of Training.  The training required shall be classroom, on the job, or a combination of the two. The type and extent of the training provided will be determined by the employee’s risks. 

a) Emergency Response Training. 

i. Contact Release Training.  Employees exposed to shock hazards and those responsible for the safe release of victims shall be trained methods of safe release from contact with exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit parts, as well as Site specific emergency procedures.  Refresher training shall occur annually.

ii. First Responders.  Employees responsible for responding to medical emergencies shall be trained in the following:  

1) First aid and Emergency procedures.

2) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

3) Automated External Defibrillator (AED); (if the emergency response plan includes the use of this device.)  

4) Site specific emergency procedures

iii. Emergency Response Training Verification.  Employees must fully understand the emergency procedures for the facility and/or jobsite at which work is being performed.  The employer will verify that employee emergency response training is current and refresher training is conducted at a frequency that satisfies the requirements of the certifying body.  

b) Qualified Employee Training.

Qualified Persons shall be trained and knowledgeable in the construction and operation of equipment or specific work method, and be trained to identify and avoid the electrical hazards that might be present with respect to that equipment or work method. A person can be considered qualified with respect to certain equipment and methods, but be unqualified for others.  Qualified persons shall be trained in the following:  

i. Proper use of special precautionary techniques

ii. Applicable electrical policies and procedures

iii. PPE selection and inspection

iv. Insulating and shielding materials

v. Insulated tools and test equipment

Qualified employees permitted to work within limited approach boundary will be trained in all of the following; 

The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit parts from other parts of electric equipment. 

The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed energized electrical conductors and circuit parts. 

The approach distances specified in this electrical safety program TABLE 3 & 4 on page 15 and the corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed. 

The decision making process necessary to be able to do the following: 

o Perform the job safety planning

o Identify electrical hazards

o Assess the associated risks

o Select the appropriate risk control methods; including personal protective equipment, as listed in Tables 3, 4, 5, and 6 of this program, pages 21-29.

Safety training shall include safety related work practices and procedure requirements, as necessary, to provide protection from electrical hazards contained in the following references:  

o OSHA 29 CFR 1926.416 Construction Standards. 

o OSHA 29 CFR 1910.331 – 1910.335  General Industry Standards

o NFPA-70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. 

o This written Electrical Safety Program

Qualified Employee Training Verification.  Training effectiveness shall be verified through regular supervision or inspections conducted annually.  The verifications shall determine that each employee is complying with safety related work practices required by this program.   

c) Unqualified Employee Training.

Unqualified persons shall be trained in, and familiar with, any of the electrical safety related practices necessary for their safety.  Such training may include:

i. Labeling requirements

ii. Using cord and plug equipment

iii. Limited approach boundaries and arc flash boundary

iv. Safe work practices for wet or damp environments

d) ESCO employee retraining will be conducted under any of the following conditions:

i. Site inspections indicate the employee is not complying with electrical safety related work practices.

ii. New technology, equipment or changes in procedures.

iii. Any safety related work practices which are not normally used

iv. Job duty changes

v. Intervals not to exceed 3 years.

5. Hazard Identification

a) Risk Assessment Procedure.  Before electrical work is started, a risk assessment of the task will be completed to identify the hazards, assess the risks, and determine control methods to be used.  The risk assessment procedure shall address the potential for human error and its negative consequences on people, processes, equipment and the work environment.  The risk assessment will include the following:  

i. Shock Risk Assessment.  Employees shall perform a shock risk assessment to determine the:

a. Voltage to which personnel will be exposed

b. Boundary requirements, refer to Approach Boundaries TABLE 1 & 2, on page 20.  

c. PPE necessary in order to minimize the possibility of electric shock.  

ii. Arc flash risk assessment.  Employees shall perform an arc flash risk assessment to determine the:

a. Arc flash boundary,

b. Incident energy or Arc Flash PPE Category

c. The specific safety related work practices determined, before any person is exposed to electrical hazards. 

d. Table 4 on pages 23-26 can be used to assist.

iii. The condition of electrical equipment and systems will be considered when assessing the risks to perform electrical work.  

iv. The ESCO Group employee in charge will complete the Job Briefing and Planning Checklist contained in this policy on pages 34& 35, or if required by facility, complete customer pre-job risk assessment. 

Updated and accurate labeling information can be used to gather the information necessary to complete the shock and arc flash risk assessments.  

b) Job Briefing.  Before starting electrical work, the employee in charge shall conduct and document a job briefing with employees involved. Additional job briefing will be held if changes which may affect safety occur during the course of the work.  The briefing shall cover: 

Hazards associated with the job. 

Work procedures involved. 

Special precautions. 

Energy source controls.

Personal Protective Equipment requirements. 

Information on the energized electrical work permit.

Review of the Job Briefing and Planning Checklist, pages 34 & 35.

c) Electrical Safety Auditing.

i. This electrical safety program will be audited every three years to verify that the principles and procedures of this program are in compliance with the current requirements of NFPA 70E. 

ii. Field Work will be audited annually to verify the electrical safety procedures are being followed. 

iii. When auditing determines procedures are not being followed, appropriate revisions to the procedures and training program will be made.  

iv. Documentation of the audits will be maintained by the safety department.  

6. Relationships with Host Employer Personnel and other Contractors

When ESCO Group personnel are engaged in electrical work at worksites/facilities, the employee in charge shall conduct a meeting between the Host Employer and other Contractors, the following information shall be provided: 

Known hazards that are covered by the current NFPA 70E Standard, that are related to the contract work, and that might not be recognized by the contractor or host employees.

Information about the Host Employer’s installation needed to make assessments relating to the electrical hazards, and any existing electrical hazards from the Arc Flash Hazard Analysis, if one was conducted. 

Electrical Personal Protective Equipment/Clothing requirements.

Emergency/evacuation procedures. 

Report observed contractor employee violations of the written electrical safety program to the contractor. 

ESCO Group Responsibilities. 

Ensure that each of our employees is instructed in the hazards communicated by the Host Employer. 

Ensure that each of our employees follows the work practices and procedures required by the written electrical safety program and the current NFPA 70E Standard.

Advise the Host Employer of any unique hazards presented by the contracted work, hazards identified during the course of work that were not communicated by the Host Employer, and measures taken to correct any violations reported by Host Employer. 

Ensure all of our employees are trained in appropriate electrical safe work practices and procedures as defined in the current NFPA 70E Standard and provide documentation, if requested.

This coordination meeting will be documented using our Safety Acknowledgement sheet on page 36 in this policy.   

7. Establishing an Electrically Safe Work Condition 

a) Prior to working on or within the Limited Approach Boundary to exposed electrical conductors and circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more, an electrically safe work condition, including placement of lockout/tagout devices, shall be applied in accordance to designated lockout tagout procedures.  

b) Exposed electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more shall be considered energized until placed in an electrically safe work condition.  Steps to establish an electrical safe work condition include:   

i. Determine all possible sources of electrical energy.

ii. Properly interrupt the load.

iii. When possible, visually verify that all blades of the disconnecting devices are open.

iv. Release or block any stored mechanical energy.

v. Apply lockout/tagout devices.

vi. Use an adequately rated test instrument to test each phase and verify de-energization.  Before and after each test determine the test instrument is operating satisfactorily through verification on a known source.  

Note 1: An adequately rated, permanently mounted testing device is permitted to verify the absence of voltage of conductors or circuit parts if it meets the following:

i. It is permanently mounted and installed according to manufacturer’s instructions and tests the point of work.

ii. It is listed and labeled for the purpose of verifying absence of voltage.

iii. It tests each phase conductor or circuit part both phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground.

iv. It is verified as operating satisfactorily on any known voltage source before and after verifying absence of voltage.

Note 2: If testing for absence of voltage on electrical systems over 1000 volts, noncontact test instruments are acceptable.

c) Apply grounds if needed when the possibility of induced or stored voltages exist following the steps found in the Transformer Shutdown procedure, page 37 of this program to ensure grounds are not left on when work is complete.

d) To help avoid confusion when electrical cable has been left out of conduit, junction boxes, or enclosures while construction or demolition activity is taking place, mark the cable with the Verified De-energized Tag (found on page 42 of this program), or equivalent tag, to communicate to others in the area that an electrical hazard has not been left out in the open.     

e) Only qualified persons shall be permitted to work on electrical conductors or circuit parts that have not been put into an electrically safe work condition.  

f) The Transformer Shutdown procedure, page 37, will be completed when de-energizing transformers. 

g) See Energy Control (Lockout/Tagout) program 19 of the ESCO Group safety manual.  

8. Work Involving Electrical Hazards

a) Energized electrical conductors and circuit parts, to which an employee might be exposed, shall be put into an electrically safe work condition before an employee performs work if either of the following conditions exist:  

i. The employee is within the limited approach boundary

ii. The employee interacts with the equipment where electrical conductors are not exposed, but an increased likelihood of injury from an exposure to an arc flash hazard exists.  

1. In facilities where an incident energy analysis is completed, and equipment is labeled, ESCO employees will use electrical PPE according to this program, as indicated on the label.  This includes enclosed or exposed equipment.  (i.e. operation of circuit breaker with doors closed will require the use of arc flash PPE as indicated on the label).  

2. In facilities where an incident energy analysis is not completed.  ESCO employees will use electrical PPE according to this program, as indicated on Tables 4, 5, & 6 on pages 23-29.  This includes enclosed or exposed equipment.  

iii. When incident energies are over 40 cal/cm2 at the working distance, equipment shall be de-energized before interacting with it as there is no PPE available to protect employees from arc blast hazards.  

b) Energized Work

i. Only Qualified persons shall be permitted to work on energized electrical conductors and circuit parts.  All energized work requires the use of appropriate electrical safety related work practices and protective equipment to protect employees from shock and arc flash hazards.  Appropriate safety related work practices will be planned before anyone is exposed to the electrical hazards involved.  

ii. Additional or Increased Risk.  Energized work shall be permitted where we can demonstrate that de-energizing introduces additional or increase hazards.  Examples of increased or additional hazards include, but are not limited to, interruption of life support equipment, deactivation of emergency alarm systems and shutdown of hazardous location ventilation equipment. 

iii. Infeasibility.  Energized work shall be permitted where we can demonstrate the task to be performed is infeasible in a de-energized state due to equipment design or operational limitations. Examples of work that might be performed within the Limited Approach Boundary of exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts because of infeasibility due to equipment design or operational limitations include performing diagnostic and testing (e.g. start-up or troubleshooting) of electric circuits that form an integral part of a continuous process that would otherwise need to be completely shut down in order to permit work on one circuit or piece of equipment.

iv. Less Than 50 Volts.  Energized electrical conductors and circuit parts that operate at less than 50 volts to ground shall not be required to be de-energized where the capacity of the source and any over current protection between the energy source and the worker are considered and is determined that there will be no increased exposure to electrical burns or to explosion due to electric arcs. 

v. Normal Operation.  Normal operation of electric equipment shall be permitted when all of the following conditions are satisfied:

1) The equipment is properly installed and maintained per applicable industry codes and standards and the manufacturer's recommendations.

2) All equipment doors are closed and secured.

3) All equipment covers are in place and secured.

4) There is no evidence of impending failure.  (Such as, arcing, overheating, loose or bound equipment parts, visible damage, or deterioration.)

5) In facilities where an incident energy analysis is completed, and equipment is labeled, ESCO employees will use electrical PPE according to this program, as indicated on the label.  

c) Energized Electrical Work Permit 

i. An Energized Electrical Work Permit will be required when energized electrical work is permitted either because of an increased risk or infeasibility.  The conditions which require an energized electrical work permit are as follows:

1. The work is performed within the restricted approach boundary.

2. The employee interacts with the equipment when conductors or circuit parts are not exposed but an increased likelihood of injury from an exposure to an arc flash hazard exists. 

3. Or any additional site specific customer facility requirements.  

ii. Exemptions to the Energized Electrical Work Permit.  An energized electrical work permit shall not be required for any of the tasks listed below:   

1. Testing, troubleshooting and voltage measuring.

2. Thermography, Ultrasound and visual inspections if the restricted approach boundary is not crossed.

3. Access and egress to an area with energized electrical equipment if no electrical work is performed and the restricted approach boundary is not crossed.

4. General housekeeping and miscellaneous non-electrical tasks if the restricted approach boundary is not crossed.

Persons performing exempted activities must be provided and use appropriate safety work practices and PPE as required by this program. 

iii. See attached Energized Electrical Work Permit on page 33.

d) Safety Interlocks.  Only qualified persons following the requirements for working inside the restricted approach boundary are permitted to bypass an electrical safety interlock, provided the qualified person has sole control.  The safety interlock system shall be returned to operable condition when the work is completed.   Safety interlocks are only allowed to be bypassed temporarily and only while the qualified person is working on the equipment.  ESCO will follow customer facility requirements for by-passing safety guards or interlock.  

9. Approach Boundaries for Arc Flash and Shock Protection 

a) Approach Boundaries.  Observing a Safe Approach Distance from exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts is an effective means of maintaining electrical safety. As the distance between a person and exposed energized conductors or circuit parts decreases, the potential for electrical accident increases.

i. Limited Approach Boundary.  The limited approach boundary is an approach limit at a distance from an exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit part within which a shock hazard exists.  Refer to TABLES 1 & 2 on page 20.

1. Unqualified persons shall not be permitted to cross the limited approach boundary.   

2. Unqualified persons working at or close to the limited approach boundary shall be advised to stay clear by the qualified person in charge of the work space.  

3. When there is a need for an unqualified person to cross the limited approach boundary, a qualified person shall escort them while inside the limited approach boundary and advise on possible hazards.  Under no circumstances shall an unqualified person cross the restricted approach boundary. 

4. Methods used to establish the limited approach boundary may include:  signs, barricades, attendants, job briefings or any combination determined necessary.  The limited approach boundary must take into account the established distance from TABLE 1 &2 on page 20, as well as the longest conductive object being handled.

ii. Restricted Approach Boundary.  The restricted approach boundary is an approach limit, at a distance from an exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit part, within which there is an increased likelihood of electric shock due to electrical arc over combined with inadvertent movement.  The restricted approach boundary is set for qualified persons working in close proximity to energized electrical conductors or circuit parts.  

Conductive objects shall not be taken closer than the restricted approach boundary of exposed energized electrical conductor or circuit parts operating at  50 volts or more, unless one of the following apply:

a. The qualified person is insulated or guarded from the shock hazard.  Insulating gloves and sleeves are only considered insulation for the energized parts upon which work is being performed. 

b. The energized electrical conductors or circuit parts are insulated from the qualified person and from any other conductive object at a different potential.

c. The qualified person is insulated from any other conductive object.  

Table 3 and 4

iii. Arc Flash Boundary.  The arc flash boundary is an approach limit at a distance from a prospective arc source within which a person could receive a second degree burn if an electrical arc flash were to occur. The arc flash boundary is determined by the Arc Flash Risk Assessment.  The two methods allowed to determine the arc flash boundary are listed below:

1. Incident Energy Analysis:  The arc flash boundary shall be the distance at which the incident energy equals 5 J/cm2 (1.2 cal/cm2), as calculated.  

2. The arc flash PPE Categories:  The arc flash boundary can be tabulated by using TABLE 5 on pages 27-28, provided all the parameters of the table have been met. (short circuit current, clearing time)

All personnel, qualified and unqualified, entering or working in the arc flash boundary must wear the proper PPE as determined by this program.  Unqualified persons must be under the close supervision of a qualified person at all times when inside the arc flash boundary.  

b) Preparation for Approach.  Qualified Persons, Safe Approach Distance. Refer to TABLES 1 & 2 on page 20, for the Restricted Approach Boundary.  

i. For a person to cross the Limited Approach Boundary and enter the limited space, the following criteria should be met:  

a. Be qualified to perform the task.

b. Have a plan identifying the hazards and risks associated with the task to be performed.

c. Utilize appropriate PPE as identified in TABLE 3 & 4 on pages 21 – 26.

ii. To cross the Restricted Approach Boundary and enter the restricted space, qualified persons should do the following:

a. Have an energized electrical work permit that is documented and approved by authorized management. 

b. Use personal protective equipment that is appropriate for the voltage and energy level involved. 

c. Minimize the likelihood of bodily contact with exposed energized conductors and circuit parts from inadvertent movement by keeping as much of the body out of the restricted space as possible, and using only protected body parts in the space as necessary to accomplish the work. 

d. Use insulated tools and equipment.

iii. To cross the Arc Flash Boundary, appropriate arc rated protective equipment must be utilized.  

10. Guarding Exposed Energized Electrical Circuit Parts 

a) When normally enclosed energized conductors or circuit parts are exposed for maintenance or repair, they shall be guarded to protect unqualified persons from contact with the energized conductors or circuit parts. Employees shall place barriers of “Red Danger” tape in conjunction with safety signs to prevent or limit unqualified persons access to the electrical hazard.  The barriers shall not be placed closer than the limited approach boundary, TABLE 1 & 2 on page 20 in this program.  The barrier shall be placed at the arc flash boundary, if arc flash boundary is greater than the limited approach boundary.  All Signs, tags, and barriers will meet the requirements of ANSI Z535. 

b) If signs and barriers do not provide sufficient warning and protection from electrical hazards, an attendant shall be stationed to warn and protect persons. 

c) Protective Shields.  Protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials shall be used to protect each employee from shock, burns, or other electrically related injuries while an employee is working within the limited approach boundary of energized conductors or circuit parts that might be accidentally contacted or where dangerous electric heating or arcing might occur. 

i. Voltage-Rated Plastic Guard Equipment and Rubber insulating equipment used for protection of employees shall meet the ASTM requirements set forth in TABLE 9 on page 31.

ii. Field Fabricated Barriers.  Physical or mechanical barriers shall be installed no closer than the restricted approach boundary.  Conductive barricades shall not be used where it might increase the likelihood of exposure to electrical hazards.  

d) Back fed electrical equipment.  Where electrical equipment is intentionally back fed either through generation or other sources, all back feed enclosures shall be identified with safety signs which read “Danger – Energized Equipment”.  Utilize magnetic signs on the electrical gear, if possible in addition to red danger tape placed as a secondary precaution.  Other sources will also be identified with the proper Danger/Warning signs.  (i.e. “Danger Hi-pot testing in process”.)   

Back fed equipment (and other sources) may change exposure to electrical hazards, rendering existing equipment labels inaccurate (i.e. voltage, incident energy, or PPE Category).  The arc flash risk assessment and shock risk assessment will need to be reviewed and updated.   See Job Briefing and Planning Checklist contained in this policy on pages 34 & 35.  

11. Selection of Personal Protective Equipment

a) Employees working in areas where electrical hazards are present shall use protective equipment that is designed and constructed for the specific part of the body to be protected and for the work to be performed. 

b) Selection of Arc Flash PPE.  Arc rated clothing and PPE shall be used based on the exposure associated with the specific tasks to which employees are exposed.

i. When an incident energy analysis has been completed Table 3 on page 21 will be used to determine arc flash PPE requirements.

ii. When an incident energy analysis has not been completed, the Arc Flash PPE Categories Method can be used to select the required arc flash PPE, as referenced in TABLE 4, 5 and 6 on pages 23-29.  

c) Selection of Shock PPE.  Selection of rubber insulating PPE and equipment will be based on voltage for which the equipment will be exposed.  See TABLE 7 on page 30 for selection

d) The PPE requirements in this program are intended to protect a person from arc flash and shock hazards only, and not the physical trauma which could occur during some arc events.  

12. Personal Protective Equipment 

General: When an employee is working within the Restricted Approach Boundary or the Arc Flash Protection Boundary, he/she shall wear protective clothing and other personal protective equipment in accordance with TABLE 3 or Table 6 on pages 21 & 29, of this policy. All parts of the body in the arc flash boundary will be protected.  Personal protective equipment will be inspected for damage before each use.  Damaged personal protective equipment will not be used.   See Personal Protective Equipment program 51 in the ESCO Group safety manual.   

a) Movement and Visibility.  When arc rated clothing is worn to protect an employee, it shall cover all ignitable clothing and shall allow for movement and visibility. Clothing made from flammable synthetic materials that melt, such as nylon, polyester polypropylene and spandex may not be used. 

b) Head, Face, Neck and Chin Protection.  Employees shall wear nonconductive head protection wherever there is a danger of head injury from electric shock or burns due to contract with live parts or from flying objects resulting from electrical explosion. Employees shall wear nonconductive protective equipment for the face, neck and chin whenever there is a danger of injury from exposure to electric arcs, flashes or from flying objects resulting from electrical explosion. Hard hats shall meet ANSI Z89.1 2009 Class E.  

i. Faceshields shall be rated for the degree of exposure, and must provide wrap around protection for the face, chin, forehead, and neck area.  

ii. An arc rated balaclava will be used with an arc rated face shield when the back of the head is within the arc flash boundary and the anticipated exposure is between 1.2 and 12 cal/cm2 (TABLE 3, page 21) or Arc Flash PPE Category 2 (TABLE 6, page 29).   An arc rated balaclava must protect the neck and head except for the facial area of the eyes and nose.  If hair and beard nets are used, they must be arc rated.

iii. An arc rated hood shall be used when the anticipated incident energy exposure exceeds 12 cal/cm2 (TABLE 3, page 21) or Arc Flash PPE Category 3 or 4 (TABLE 6, page 29).  

c) Eye Protection.  Employees shall wear protective equipment for the eyes whenever there is danger of injury from electric arcs, flashes, or from flying objects resulting from electrical explosion. Safety glasses shall meet ANSI Z87-2 2003 and be non-metallic frames.  Safety glasses or goggles must be worn under faceshields and arc flash hoods.  

d) Body Protection.  Employees shall wear arc rated clothing wherever there is possible exposure to an electric arc flash hazard above the threshold incident energy level for a second degree burn or 1.2 cal/cm2.  Clothing and equipment must be rated for the degree of exposure.  

i. Clothing and equipment required shall be permitted to be worn alone or integrated with flammable, nonmelting apparel. 

Note:  Protective clothing includes shirts, pants, coveralls, jackets, and parkas worn routinely by workers who, under normal working conditions, are exposed to momentary electric arc and related thermal hazards. Arc-rated rainwear worn in inclement weather is included in this category of clothing.

ii. Layering.  Nonmelting, flammable fiber garments shall be permitted to be used as underlayers in conjunction with arc-rated garments in a layered system. If nonmelting, flammable fiber garments are used as underlayers, the system arc rating shall be sufficient to prevent break open of the innermost arc-rated layer at the expected arc exposure incident energy level to prevent ignition of flammable underlayers. Garments that are not arc rated shall not be permitted to be used to increase the arc rating of a garment or of a clothing system.
Note:  A typical layering system might include cotton underwear, a cotton shirt and trouser, and an arc-rated coverall. Specific tasks might call for additional arc-rated layers to achieve the required protection level.

iii. Outer Layers.  Garments worn as outer layers over arc-rated clothing, such as jackets or rainwear, shall also be made from arc-rated material.

iv. Underlayers.  Meltable fibers such as acetate, nylon, polyester, polypropylene, and spandex shall not be permitted in fabric underlayers (underwear) next to the skin.  Exception:  An incidental amount of elastic used on nonmelting fabric underwear or socks shall be permitted.
Note No. 1:  Arc-rated garments (for example, shirts, trousers, and coveralls) worn as underlayers that neither ignite nor melt and drip in the course of an exposure to electric arc and related thermal hazards generally provide a higher system arc rating than nonmelting, flammable fiber underlayers.
Note No. 2:  Arc-rated underwear or undergarments used as underlayers generally provide a higher system arc rating than nonmelting, flammable fiber underwear or undergarments used as underlayers.

v. Coverage.  Clothing shall cover potentially exposed areas as completely as possible. Shirt and coverall sleeves shall be fastened at the wrists, shirts shall be tucked into pants, and shirts, coveralls, and jackets shall be closed at the neck.

vi. Fit.  Tight-fitting clothing shall be avoided. Loose-fitting clothing provides additional thermal insulation because of air spaces. Arc-rated apparel shall fit properly such that it does not interfere with the work task.

vii. Interference.  The garment selected shall result in the least interference with the task but still provide the necessary protection. The work method, location, and task could influence the protective equipment selected.

viii. Arc Flash Suits.  Arc flash suit design shall permit easy and rapid removal by the wearer. The entire arc flash suit, including the hood’s face shield, shall have an arc rating that is suitable for the arc flash exposure. When exterior air is supplied into the hood, the air hoses and pump housing shall be either covered by arc-rated materials or constructed of nonmelting and nonflammable materials.

e) Care and Maintenance of: Arc Rated Clothing,  Arc Flash Suits and Shock Protection

i. Arc Rated Clothing

1. Clothing Inspection:  Arc rated apparel shall be inspected before each use. Work clothing or flash suits that are contaminated, or damaged to the extent their protective qualities are impaired, shall not be used. Protective items that become contaminated with grease, oil, or flammable liquids or combustible materials shall not be used. 

2. Clothing Care:  All arc rated clothing shall be laundered and repaired per each manufacturer instructions.

3. ESCO issues arc-rated (AR) clothing to help protect employees from arc flash hazards that exist in the workplace.  In addition to arc flash protection, the clothing can help employees to stay warm in cooler environments; however, it can sometimes pose as a heat stress hazard in warmer environments. ESCO has implemented an arc rated shirt reprieve to help prevent heat related hazards.  The reprieve is allowed when the temperature meets or exceeds 80°F if all of the following conditions are met:

a. There is no exposure to exposed energized conductors.

b. The employee is not within the arc flash boundary.

c. ESCO Supervision determines there is a need.

d. Customer site rules allow non-arc-rated clothing.

4. Arc rated shirt reprieve expectations:

a. Employees are required to wear their full uniform to work daily.  Once they are assigned a task where no arc flash hazards are present, they can remove their arc rated shirt and wear a 100% cotton t-shirt.  Employees must wear the appropriate level of arc flash protection regardless of reprieve when within the arc flash approach boundary for energized systems. All employees that have been issued arc rated jeans/pants are required to wear them every day.  

b. We will follow our customer’s policies if they request us to wear the arc rated shirts 100% of the time.  

ii. Shock Protection

1. Voltage Rated Gloves

a. Inspect all voltage rated gloves before every use. Make sure rubbers are clean before inspection. Check rubbers in between fingers, all around the rest of the glove, turn inside out and check again. Do roll test to check for holes, age cracking, and penetrations in the rubber.

b. If leather outer is damaged, check rubber for damage immediately.

c. Make sure that both the rubbers and the leathers are clean before use. If mold is found on rubber gloves, they must be taken out of service.

d. When storing voltage rated gloves, make sure to never crease or fold. Store in dry area with nothing on top of glove bag.

2. Voltage Rated Blankets/Mats

a. Never fold blankets when storing.

b. Make sure blankets are clean before use and before storing.

c. When inspecting blankets, roll and apply tension while looking closely for defects. After rolling, turn around and roll it the other way. Once first side is rolled both ways, turn over and repeat on the other side.

f) Hand and Arm Protection.  Employees shall wear rubber insulating gloves and or insulating sleeves, with leather protectors, where there is a danger of hand and arm injury from electric shock due to contact with live parts operating at 50 volts or more, including testing, troubleshooting, and voltage measuring. See TABLE 7, page30 for selection of rubber insulating gloves.  

Table 5

Hand and arm protection shall be worn where there is possible exposure to arc flash burn as follows:

i. Heavy duty leather gloves or arc rated gloves shall be worn where required for arc flash protection. See TABLES 3 and 6, pages 21 & 29.

ii. Leather protectors shall be worn over rubber insulated gloves to provide additional arc flash protection for the hands.  If rubber insulating gloves with leather protectors are used, additional leather or arc-rated gloves are not required. The combination of rubber insulating gloves with leather protectors satisfies the arc flash protection requirement

g) Foot Protection.  Dielectric overshoes shall be worn as primary shock protection against step and touch potentials where determined necessary by the hazard risk assessment (Job Briefing and Planning Checklist, i.e. performing electrical work while standing in water).  In arc flash exposures greater than 4 cal/cm2 heavy duty leather footwear will be worn.    Electrical Hazard (EH) Footwear shall meet ASTM F2413-05 will be considered a secondary source of protection, under dry conditions only.  

h) Hearing Protection.  Employees shall wear hearing protection whenever working within the arc flash boundary.  

13. Other Protective Equipment

a) Insulated Tools and Equipment.  Employees shall use insulated tools and/or handling equipment when working inside the Restricted Approach Boundary of exposed live parts where tools or handling equipment might make accidental contact. Insulated tools shall be protected from damage to the insulating material. 

i. Requirements for Insulated Tools.  Insulated tools shall be rated for the voltage on which they are used, and be designed and constructed for the environment to which they are exposed and the manner in which they are used. 

ii. Insulated tools shall be inspected prior to each use.  Inspections will look for damage to the insulation and other damage which can affect the function of the tool.  (For example, worn jaws on a pliers)

b) Fuse or Fuse Holding Equipment.  Fuse or fuse holder handling equipment, insulated for the circuit voltage, shall be used to remove or install a fuse if the fuse terminals are energized. 

c) Ropes and Handlines.  Ropes and handlines used near exposed live parts operating at 50 volts or more, or used where an electrical hazard exists, shall be nonconductive. 

d) Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Rods.  Fiberglass reinforced plastic rod and tube used for live line tools, shall meet the requirements of ASTM F 711, Standard Specification for Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube Used: in Live Line Tools.  See TABLE 9 page 31. 

e) Portable Ladders.  Portable ladders shall have nonconductive side rails if they are used within the limited approach boundary or where an employee or ladder could contact exposed energized conductors or circuit parts. Nonconductive ladders shall meet the requirements of ANSI standards for ladders.

14. Test Instruments and Equipment/Accessories 

a) Testing.  Only qualified persons shall perform tasks such as testing, troubleshooting, and voltage measuring within the limited approach boundary of energized electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more or where an electrical hazard exists.

b) Rating.  Test instruments, equipment, and their accessories shall be rated for circuits and equipment where they are utilized, approved for the purpose, and used according to manufacturer instructions.

c) Design.  Test instruments, equipment, and their accessories shall be designed for the environment to which will be exposed, and for the manner in which they will be utilized. 

d) Visual Inspection and Repair.  Test instruments, equipment, and all associated test leads, cables, power cords, probes, and connectors shall be visually inspected for expected external defects and damage before each use. If there is a defect or evidence of damage the item shall be removed from service, and tagged “Danger Unsafe Do Not Use”.  Damaged equipment may not be used until repaired by a person qualified to perform the repairs and necessary tests to render the equipment safe.  

e) Calibration.  Ensure all test instruments, equipment, and their accessories receive calibration, as required by manufacturer’s instructions. 

f) Operation Verification.  When test instructions are used for testing the absence of voltage on conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more, the operation of the test instrument shall be verified before and after an absence of voltage test is performed on a known voltage source (also known as live-dead-live). 

15. Cord and Plug Connected Equipment and Flexible Cord Sets 

a) Visual Inspection of Portable Cords and Plugs.  Before each use on any shift, portable cord and plug-connected equipment shall be visually inspected for external defects (such as loose parts, deformed and missing pins) and for evidence of possible internal damage. (Such as pinched or crushed outer jackets). 

b) Any portable cord and plug-connected equipment or flexible cord sets found to be defective or damaged shall be removed from service and tagged, “Danger Unsafe Do Not Use”.  Damaged cord and plug equipment may not be used until repaired by a person qualified to perform the repairs and necessary tests to render the equipment safe.  

c) Conductive Work Locations.  (i.e. inundated with water):  equipment used in job locations where employees are likely to contact water or other conductive liquids shall be approved for those locations.  

16. Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI). 

GFCI protection will be provided and used in the following:

a) When working outdoors. 

b) Where required by state, federal, or local codes. 

c) In job locations where employees are likely to make contact or be drenched with water or conductive liquid.

d) Any construction and maintenance activity involving cord and plug connected tools.  

GFCI protection devices shall be inspected and tested before used on any shift per manufactures instructions.   When working outdoors with equipment supplied by greater than 125 V, 15, 20 or 30 Amperes, an Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor program shall be implemented.  See Assured Grounding 6.0 program in the ESCO Group Safety Manual.  

17. Other Precautions for Personnel Activities

a) Alertness.  Employees shall remain alert at all times when working within the limited approach boundary. Work will cease when alertness is recognizably impaired due to illness, fatigue, or other reason.  Employees shall be alert for changes in the scope of work which could expose the person to additional hazards.

b) Illumination.

i. Employees shall not enter spaces where electrical hazards exist unless illumination is provided that enables the employees to perform the work safely.  

ii. Where lack of illumination or an obstruction precludes observation of the work to be performed, employees shall not perform any task within the Limited Approach Boundary of energized electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more or where an electrical hazard exists.

iii. Suitable temporary lighting equipment will be provided, as needed.

c) Blind reaching.  Employees shall not reach blindly into areas that might contain exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts.

d) Conductive Materials.

i. Conductive Articles Being Worn.  Conductive articles of jewelry and clothing (such as watch bands, bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, metalized aprons, cloth with conductive thread, metal headgear or metal frame safety glasses) shall not be worn with in the restricted approach boundary or where they present an electrical contact hazard with exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. 

ii. Conductive Materials, Tools and Equipment Being Handled.  Conductive materials in contact with any part of the employee’s body shall be handled in a manner that prevents accidental contact with energized electrical conductors or circuit parts.  No conductive object shall be taken closer to exposed energized electrical conductors or circuit parts operating at 50V or more than the restricted approach boundary.  

e) Confined or Enclosed Spaces.  

i. When working in confined or enclosed spaces in which an electrical hazard exists, protective shields, protective barriers, or other insulating materials shall be used to prevent inadvertent contact with energized parts.  Examples of confined or enclosed spaces may include:  manholes, vaults, pull boxes or other enclosures.   All hazards, including electrical, must be considered prior to entry into a confined or enclosed space.   See Confined Spaces program 11 of the ESCO Group safety manual.  

f) Doors and Hinged Panels shall be secured to prevent swinging into employees and causing contact with energized electrical conductors or circuit parts if movement of the door could create a hazard.

g) Housekeeping.  Appropriate safeguards (such as insulating material or barriers) will be provided for any housekeeping duties performed within the limited approach boundary.  Electrically conductive cleaning material shall not be used unless a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) establishes safe procedures.

h) Clear Spaces.  Working space will be kept clear to permit safe operation and maintenance of electrical equipment.  See TABLE 9, page 30.    

i) Flammable Material.  Electrical equipment will not be used in the presence of flammable material unless protective measures are taken (i.e. intrinsically safe tools, shutdown or wash-down of an area with special permits in place).  Flammable material includes flammable gases, vapors, liquids, combustible dusts, and ignitable fibers. 

 j) Anticipating Failure.  Equipment which is anticipated to fail shall be de-energized and placed in an electrically safe work condition unless de-energizing introduces additional hazards or is infeasible due to equipment design or operational limitations.  Employees shall be protected from hazards by suitable barricades and alerting techniques. 

k) Routine Opening and Closing of Circuits.  Only devices specifically designed as disconnecting means shall be used for opening or closing of circuits under load conditions.  Cable connectors, fuses, terminal lugs and cable splices shall not be permitted to be used to interrupt the load except in an emergency situation.  

l) Reclosing Circuits After Protective Devices Operation.  After automatic operation of devices, circuits shall not be manually reenergized until it has been determined that the equipment can be safely reenergized.  When it is determined from the design of the circuit and the overcurrent devices involved, that the automatic operation of a device was caused by an overload rather than a fault, examination shall not be required.  The repetitive manual reclosing of circuit breakers or reenergizing through fuse replacement is prohibited.

18. Overhead Lines 

If work is performed near overhead lines, the lines will be de-energized and grounded or other protective measures shall be provided.  

a) Approach Distances.  Unqualified person and mechanical equipment clearances:  Clearance to overhead lines will be a minimum 1) 50kV and below = 10 feet 2) 50 kV and above = 4 in for every 10 kV over 50kV.  See TABLE 3 &4, column 2 page 15.   

b) Guarding or De-energizing.  The qualified person in charge shall determine if the overhead electrical lines are insulated for the line’s operating voltage.  Arrangements with the organization that operates or controls the lines shall be made to de-energize overhead lines and ground them at the point of work.  When protective measures are used, they shall prevent each employee from contacting overhead lines directly with any part of his/her body, or indirectly through conductive materials, tools or equipment.  Protective measures may include:  guarding, isolating, or insulation.  

c) Vehicular and Mechanical Equipment near energized overhead lines.

i. Vehicle and mechanical equipment shall be fully lowered when in transit. 

ii. Employees shall not contact the vehicle or equipment, unless using the properly voltage rated protective equipment or no insulated part of the structure can come closer to the line than the limited approach boundary.

iii. Intentionally grounded Vehicles or Equipment:  precautions will be taken to protect employees from hazardous ground potentials.  These precautions may include:  barricades, dielectric overshoes, or insulation.  Employees shall be kept clear of the grounding locations.  

d) Job Planning.  Work near overhead lines will be planned and documented on the JOB BRIEFING AND PLANNING CHECKLIST, page 34 & 35.

19. Underground Electrical Lines and Equipment  

a) Before excavation starts the appropriate owner or authority will be notified to identify and mark the location of electrical lines or equipment.  If it is determined that there is reasonable possibility for contacting electrical lines or equipment, appropriate safe work practices and PPE shall be used during the excavation.  See Excavation, Trenching, and Shoring program 22 of the ESCO Group safety manual.  

20. Cutting or Drilling

a) Before cutting or drilling into equipment, floors, walls or structural elements where a risk of contacting energized electrical lines or parts exists, the ESCO Group employee in charge shall perform a risk assessment to:

i. Identify and mark the location of conductors, cables, raceways, or equipment;

ii. Create an electrically safe work condition (when possible).

iii. Identify safe work practices and personal protective equipment to be used.  Safe work practices may include; using drill depth gage/stop, and issuing an Energized Electrical Work Permit, page 33, when work is with the restricted approach boundary.  

iv. Work will be planned and documented on the JOB BRIEFING AND PLANNING CHECKLIST, page 34 & 35

v. See Core Drilling program 12 of the ESCO Group safety manual

21. Demolition of Conduit or Tray Cable

a) Scope

i. This part of our Electrical Safety Work Practices program will address the removing of single layer, as well as multiple layer tray cables and will provide steps for removal of conduit that may contain energized wires. These required steps will focus on the safest approach to removal of tray cable and conduit that is part of ESCO Group’s demolition process.

b) Steps

i. Preplanning, identification and removal of energy sources.

1. A Job Briefing and ESCO Group’s Electrical Conduit and Tray Cable Removal Permit shall be filled out and completed before work commences.

2. A qualified electrician shall be assigned to identify, trace, mark and disconnect any known energy sources for the tray cable/conduit to be removed.

3. If LOTO is required, follow proper LOTO procedures outlined in ESCO Group’s Energy Control Procedures (lockout-tagout) program and all wire that has the potential to have energy shall be verified zero energy with an appropriate meter.

ii. Identifying, tracing, and marking of tray cable/conduit

1. Identifying and Tracing

a. A qualified electrician will be responsible for identifying and tracing the tray cable/conduit to be removed. If the qualified electrician identifying and tracing out the tray cable/conduit is not the employee conducting the work, the employee conducting the work shall accompany the qualified electrician during the identification process.

b. Identify where any tray cable/conduit passes through any obstructions, walls or otherwise hidden from view. These areas shall be discussed in detail to determine how the correct tray cable/conduit will be identified.

2. Marking of tray cable/conduit

a. Tray Cable 

1) Tray cable does not need to deem any markings or flagging unless instructed by the supervisor. Recommendations for tray cable marking/flagging is every 15 feet place a marker/flagging item to signify that is the tray cable needing demoed.

3. Conduit

a. If the qualified electrician marking the conduit is not the employee who will be conducting the demolition process, the employee conducting the demolition of the conduit must be included on the marking process.

b. Marking of the conduit must consist of that marking every 10 feet and where conduits are obstructed from view, i.e. walls, it shall be marked immediately on both sides of the obstructed view.

c. The choice of marking will be consistent for the entire run of conduit.

d. Acceptable methods of marking:

1) Colored flagging, with at least 4 inches of flagging hanging.

2) Brightly colored electrical tape wrapped around the conduit and at least 4 inches left hanging down.

3) Painting of the conduit, making sure not to get any paint on adjacent conduits.

iii. Removal of tray cable/conduit

1. A qualified electrician will be assigned to verify and de-terminate any cables/wires that may have the potential to be re-energized during the demolition process.

2. Acceptable methods of identifying and removing the tray cable prior to demolition/cutting.

a. Remove the tray cable from the tray starting at either the powered or equipment end. After removal from the tray the tray cable can then be cut and removed.

b. If above is not feasible and you have to physically be in the tray with the tray cable or adjacent with the tray, hold the cable in hand while sliding your hand down the cable every 5 feet. After verifying the correct cable you can then proceed to cut the cable.

3. Safe work practices and methods for the removal of conduits.

a. Conduits are clearly marked and visible to the employee(s) who will be conducting the demolition.

b. Employee(s) conducting the demolition of conduits have been walked down and have a clear understanding of what is to be removed. 

c. Employee(s) have a clear understanding to STOP WORK if any of the demolition plan has be deviated from.

d. ESCO Group’s preferred method to demoing conduits is to unscrew them; if unscrewing them is not feasible, cutting with the appropriate cutter is required.  Address the appropriate cutting method with ESCO Site Supervision.